This process will take a couple of steps.
The first step is to convert your tabular data to geographic data - ie, plotting the XY coordinates on the map.
Once you've brought the table into ArcMap, choose -> Tools -> Add XY Data. This will create an Event Layer, where ArcMap creates a point layer based on the XY coordinates.
You can convert this into a point shapefile (a GIS dataset stored on disk) by right-clicking and choosing -> Data -> Export Data.
Now that you have points representing the values in the table, there are a couple of ways to create a line or polygon dataset from the points.
To do this manually, you could create an empty line or polygon dataset, and digitize new lines/polygons over the points.
In ArcCatalog, choose -> File -> New -> Shapefile. In the Feature Type dropdown, specify whether you want to create a polyline or polygon dataset.
Add this empty dataset to ArcMap, and start editing. Open the -> Editor -> Snapping dialog and set the snapping environment to the vertices (points) of your points layer. Now when you digitize the lines or polygons, their vertices will snap to the existing points layer.
You may need to check the ArcGIS Help file for more detailed information on some of these steps, eg how to start editing, snapping, etc.
If you're feeling more adventurous, there is an automated method for converting points into polygons found in the ArcObjects Developers Kit under -> Samples -> Geometry -> Convert selected points to polygon. This may require a little more experience with ArcGIS, and possibly some VB/ArcObjects experience.